Comprehensive Characterization of Cocos nucifera Palm Residues for Biochar Production
Keywords:Biochar, biochemical composition, coconut palm residues, proximate composition, slow pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analysis
The feasibility of using Cocos nucifera palm residues such as shell, husk, leaflets, fronds, and rachis for biochar production was investigated. Biomass characterization such as proximate, elemental, biochemical, higher heating value, and thermogravimetry were analysed. The results showed that fixed carbon of coconut palm residues was in the range of 10.48% to 17.47%, with the shell being the highest. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen content of the residues ranged from 39.46% to 48.60%, 4.23% to 6.00%, 0.42% to 1.66%, and 44.98% to 55.28%, respectively. Among the residues, lignin content was found to be maximum in the shell biomass (29.31%) and minimum in the rachis (21.89%). Thermogravimetric analysis of coconut palm residues revealed the presence of three stages of thermal degradation with overall weight loss ranging between 68.56% and 77.08 per cent. Higher fixed carbon and lignin content unveiled the potential of coconut palm residues for biochar synthesis. Slow pyrolysis of coconut palm residues resulted in biochar generation with fixed carbon content ranging between 65.40% and 78.21%, and proved its suitability for applications such as solid fuel, adsorbent, catalyst, and precursor for biomaterials production such as activated carbon and carbon molecular sieves.