Effects of Tray and Freeze Drying on Physico-chemical and Structural Properties of Fig Fruit Powder


  • P. D. Poovai Department of Food Process Engineering, School of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur-603 203, Tamil Nadu, India Author
  • K. A. Athmaselvi Centre of Excellence for Grain Sciences, National Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management, Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Pudukottai Road, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu – 613005 Author
  • T. Arumuganathan ICAR - Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore-641 007, Tamil Nadu Author
  • Shubham Subrot Panigrahi Centre for Applied Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (CARIE), Lethbridge College, Lethbridge, AB T1K1L6, Canada Author
  • C. Indu Rani Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu Author
  • R. Neelavathi ICAR-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tindivanam, Villupuram District - 604 002, Tamil Nadu Author




Fig, freeze-drying, FTIR, SEM, tray-drying, XRD


A study was conducted on the drying of fig fruits using tray-drying [50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C for 3 h] and freeze-drying [(-)43 °C for 24 h] dehydration techniques. The physico-chemical properties of fig fruit powder were studied. Different temperatures and methods of drying had effects on the moisture content, water activity, physico-chemical properties, and structural properties. Moisture content and water activity were in the range of 6.5-8.5% (w.b.) and 0.40-0.60, respectively. Powders of 15- 30 μm size range and with a flaky texture had moderate flowability. FTIR analysis exhibited peaks of varied range. XRD analysis showed that the powders were predominately amorphous in nature, and C-type starch was present.


Adina C; Florinela F; Abdelmoumen T; Carmen S. 2010. Application of FTIR spectroscopy for a rapid determination of some hydrolytic enzymes activity on sea buckthorn substrate. Rom. Biotechnol. Lett., 15, 5738-5744. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230744319

AOAC. 1998. Official Methods 935.47. In: Cunniff P Ed., AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Athmaselvi K A; Kumar C; Balasubramanian M; Ishita R. 2014. Thermal, structural and physical properties of freeze dried tropical fruit powder. J. Food Process., Article ID 524705, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/524705

Baby J; Justin R S. 2011. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical properties of Ficus carica Linn. -An overview. Int. J. Pharmtechnol. Res., 3, 8-12.

Bhatta S; Stevanovic Janezic T; Ratti C. 2020. Freeze-drying of plant-based foods. Foods, 9(1), 87, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070920

Carr R L. 1965. Evaluating flow properties of solids. Chem. Eng. J., 72, 163-168.

Chetan C A; Barrett D M. 2001. Optimization of guava juice and powder production. J. Food Process. Preserv., 25, 411-430. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.2001.tb00470.x

Dhankar P. 2013. A Study on development of coconut based gluten free cookies. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Invent., 2, 10-19.

Ghosh S; Mitra J. 2020. Importance of Normality Testing, Parametric and Non-Parametric Approach, Association, Correlation and Linear Regression (Multiple & Multivariate) of Data in Food & Bio- Process Engineering. In: Mathematical and Statistical Applications in Food Engineering, CRC Press, 112- 126.

Goula A M; Adamopoulos K G A. 2005. Spray drying of tomato pulp in dehumidified air: II. The effect on powder properties. J. Food Eng., 66, 35-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.02.031

Govindaraju I; Zhuo G Y; Chakraborty I; Melanthota S K; Mal S S; Sarmah B; Mazumder N. 2022. Investigation of structural and physico-chemical properties of rice starch with varied amylose content: A combined microscopy, spectroscopy, and thermal study. Food Hydrocoll., 122, 107093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2021.107093






Regular Issue

How to Cite

P. D. Poovai, K. A. Athmaselvi, T. Arumuganathan, Shubham Subrot Panigrahi, C. Indu Rani, & R. Neelavathi. (2023). Effects of Tray and Freeze Drying on Physico-chemical and Structural Properties of Fig Fruit Powder. Journal of Agricultural Engineering (India), 60(3), 251-260. https://doi.org/10.52151/jae2023603.1811